dotNET Developer Interview QnA

Sure, I'd be happy to help with that! Here are 10 questions and answers for each of the mentioned skills:

### ASP.NET:

1. **Q: What is ASP.NET?**
   - A: ASP.NET is an open-source web framework developed by Microsoft for building modern, dynamic web applications and services using .NET.

2. **Q: What is the difference between ASP.NET Web Forms and ASP.NET MVC?**
   - A: ASP.NET Web Forms follows a more event-driven model, while ASP.NET MVC is based on the Model-View-Controller pattern, providing better separation of concerns.

3. **Q: Explain the concept of ViewState in ASP.NET.**
   - A: ViewState is used to persist state information of server-side objects across multiple requests for the same page. It helps in maintaining state between postbacks.

4. **Q: What is Razor syntax in ASP.NET?**
   - A: Razor syntax is a markup syntax used to embed C# code into HTML markup in ASP.NET views. It allows for a more concise and readable way to mix code with HTML.

5. **Q: How can you handle errors in ASP.NET applications?**
   - A: Errors in ASP.NET can be handled using try-catch blocks, custom error pages, and the Global.asax file, where the Application_Error event can be used.

6. **Q: What is the ASP.NET Core?**
   - A: ASP.NET Core is a cross-platform, high-performance, open-source framework for building modern, cloud-based, and internet-connected applications.

7. **Q: Explain dependency injection in ASP.NET Core.**
   - A: Dependency injection is a design pattern used to achieve Inversion of Control (IoC) in ASP.NET Core, allowing services to be injected into components.

8. **Q: How does middleware work in ASP.NET Core?**
   - A: Middleware in ASP.NET Core is a pipeline of components that handle requests and responses. Each component performs a specific function in the processing chain.

9. **Q: What is Tag Helper in ASP.NET Core?**
   - A: Tag Helpers in ASP.NET Core are a feature that allows server-side code to participate in creating and rendering HTML elements in Razor files.

10. **Q: How can you secure an ASP.NET application?**
    - A: Security in ASP.NET can be implemented through measures like authentication, authorization, HTTPS, and input validation. ASP.NET Identity is often used for user management.

### .NET Core:

1. **Q: What is .NET Core?**
   - A: .NET Core is an open-source, cross-platform framework for building modern, cloud-based, and internet-connected applications.

2. **Q: What are the main differences between .NET Framework and .NET Core?**
   - A: .NET Core is cross-platform, modular, and designed for modern applications, while .NET Framework is Windows-centric and more monolithic.

3. **Q: Explain the concept of self-contained deployments in .NET Core.**
   - A: Self-contained deployments in .NET Core include the runtime and libraries needed to run an application, allowing it to be deployed without relying on the installed runtime.

4. **Q: What is Kestrel in the context of .NET Core?**
   - A: Kestrel is a cross-platform web server built for speed and used as the default web server for ASP.NET Core applications.

5. **Q: How does dependency injection work in .NET Core?**
   - A: .NET Core uses a built-in dependency injection container to manage the instantiation and lifetime of application components.

6. **Q: What is the role of NuGet in .NET Core?**
   - A: NuGet is a package manager for .NET that simplifies the process of incorporating third-party libraries and tools into a project.

7. **Q: How does .NET Core support microservices architecture?**
   - A: .NET Core is well-suited for microservices architecture due to its modularity, cross-platform support, and lightweight nature.

8. **Q: Explain the concept of multi-targeting in .NET Core.**
   - A: Multi-targeting in .NET Core allows a single project to target multiple frameworks, enabling code reuse across different platforms.

9. **Q: What is the role of the dotnet CLI in .NET Core development?**
   - A: The dotnet Command-Line Interface (CLI) is used for project creation, compilation, testing, and publishing in .NET Core development.

10. **Q: How can you host a .NET Core application in Docker?**
    - A: .NET Core applications can be containerized using Docker to ensure consistent deployment across different environments.

### C#:

1. **Q: What is C#?**
   - A: C# (C-sharp) is a modern, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. It is widely used for building Windows applications, web applications, and more.

2. **Q: Explain the difference between value types and reference types in C#.**
   - A: Value types store their data directly, while reference types store a reference to the memory location where the data is stored.

3. **Q: What is the purpose of the "using" statement in C#?**
   - A: The "using" statement is used for resource management, ensuring that IDisposable objects are properly disposed of when they are no longer needed.

4. **Q: What is polymorphism in C#?**
   - A: Polymorphism in C# allows objects of different types to be treated as objects of a common base type through inheritance and interfaces.

5. **Q: What are lambda expressions in C#?**
   - A: Lambda expressions are a concise way to represent anonymous methods in C#. They are often used for defining inline functions.

6. **Q: Explain the concept of async/await in C#.**
   - A: Async/await is a feature in C# that allows asynchronous programming, making it easier to write code that performs asynchronous operations without blocking the main thread.

7. **Q: What is the purpose of the "readonly" keyword in C#?**
   - A: The "readonly" keyword in C# is used to declare constant values that can only be assigned at the time of declaration or within the constructor.

8. **Q: What is LINQ (Language Integrated Query) in C#?**
   - A: LINQ is a set of features in C# that allows developers to query data from different sources using a syntax similar to SQL.

9. **Q: How does exception handling work in C#?**
   - A: Exception handling in C# is done using try, catch, and finally blocks. Exceptions can be caught and handled, preventing program crashes.

10. **Q: What is the purpose of the "yield" keyword in C#?**
    - A: The "yield" keyword is used in C# to create iterator methods, allowing the generation of a sequence of values lazily.

### jQuery:

1. **Q: What is jQuery?**
   - A: jQuery is a fast, small, and feature-rich JavaScript library. It simplifies tasks like DOM manipulation, event handling, and AJAX requests.

2. **Q: How do you include jQuery in a web page?**
   - A: jQuery can be included in a web page by referencing it from a CDN (Content Delivery Network

) or by downloading and hosting the jQuery library locally.

3. **Q: What is the purpose of the document ready function in jQuery?**
   - A: The document ready function ensures that the code inside it is executed only after the DOM (Document Object Model) has fully loaded.

4. **Q: Explain event delegation in jQuery.**
   - A: Event delegation is a technique in jQuery where a single event handler is attached to a common ancestor, and events are allowed to bubble up from the child elements.

5. **Q: How does AJAX work in jQuery?**
   - A: AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) in jQuery allows for making asynchronous HTTP requests, updating parts of a web page without requiring a full page reload.

6. **Q: What are jQuery selectors?**
   - A: jQuery selectors are expressions that help select and manipulate HTML elements based on their attributes, types, and positions in the DOM.

7. **Q: Explain the difference between `.append()` and `.appendTo()` in jQuery.**
   - A: `.append()` is used to insert content at the end of each selected element, while `.appendTo()` inserts content to the end of the target element.

8. **Q: What is the purpose of the `.fadeOut()` method in jQuery?**
   - A: The `.fadeOut()` method is used to gradually reduce the opacity of selected elements, making them appear to fade out.

9. **Q: How can you handle animations in jQuery?**
   - A: jQuery provides methods like `.animate()` for handling animations, allowing you to change CSS properties over a specified duration.

10. **Q: What is the role of the `.ajax()` function in jQuery?**
    - A: The `.ajax()` function in jQuery is used for making asynchronous HTTP requests. It provides a wide range of options for customization.

### JavaScript:

1. **Q: What is JavaScript?**
   - A: JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that is primarily used for adding interactivity and dynamic behavior to web pages.

2. **Q: Explain the difference between `let`, `const`, and `var` in JavaScript.**
   - A: `let` and `const` are block-scoped, while `var` is function-scoped. `const` is used for constants, and `let` is used for variables that can be reassigned.

3. **Q: What is the DOM in JavaScript?**
   - A: The Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for web documents. It represents the structure of a document as a tree of objects that can be manipulated with code.

4. **Q: How does asynchronous programming work in JavaScript?**
   - A: Asynchronous programming in JavaScript is achieved using callbacks, promises, and async/await. These allow non-blocking execution of code.

5. **Q: What is a closure in JavaScript?**
   - A: A closure is a function that has access to variables from its outer (enclosing) scope, even after the outer function has finished executing.

6. **Q: Explain the concept of event delegation in JavaScript.**
   - A: Event delegation in JavaScript involves attaching a single event listener to a common ancestor, allowing events to be handled for multiple elements efficiently.

7. **Q: What is the difference between `==` and `===` in JavaScript?**
   - A: `==` checks for equality after type coercion, while `===` checks for equality without type coercion (strict equality).

8. **Q: How does prototypal inheritance work in JavaScript?**
   - A: In JavaScript, objects can inherit properties and methods from other objects through the prototype chain, forming a mechanism known as prototypal inheritance.

9. **Q: Explain the concept of callbacks in JavaScript.**
   - A: Callbacks are functions passed as arguments to other functions, which will be executed later, often after an asynchronous operation or an event.

10. **Q: What is the purpose of the `setTimeout` function in JavaScript?**
    - A: The `setTimeout` function is used to schedule the execution of a function after a specified delay in milliseconds.

### Microsoft SQL Server:

1. **Q: What is Microsoft SQL Server?**
   - A: Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by Microsoft. It is used for storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications.

2. **Q: What is the difference between a clustered and a non-clustered index in SQL Server?**
   - A: A clustered index determines the physical order of data in a table, while a non-clustered index does not affect the physical order and creates a separate structure for indexing.

3. **Q: Explain the concept of normalization in database design.**
   - A: Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and improve data integrity. It involves dividing large tables into smaller, related tables.

4. **Q: What is a stored procedure in SQL Server?**
   - A: A stored procedure is a precompiled collection of one or more SQL statements that can be executed as a single unit. It is stored in the database for reuse.

5. **Q: How do you optimize a query in SQL Server?**
   - A: Query optimization in SQL Server involves using indexes, writing efficient queries, avoiding unnecessary joins, and analyzing execution plans.

6. **Q: What is the purpose of the `JOIN` clause in SQL Server?**
   - A: The `JOIN` clause is used to combine rows from two or more tables based on a related column between them.

7. **Q: Explain the concept of ACID properties in the context of database transactions.**
   - A: ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties ensure the reliability of database transactions by guaranteeing their integrity and consistency.

8. **Q: What is the purpose of the `UNION` and `UNION ALL` operators in SQL Server?**
   - A: The `UNION` operator is used to combine the result sets of two or more SELECT statements without duplicates, while `UNION ALL` includes duplicates.

9. **Q: How do you perform error handling in SQL Server stored procedures?**
   - A: Error handling in SQL Server stored procedures is done using the `TRY...CATCH` construct to catch and handle exceptions.

10. **Q: What is the purpose of the `TRIGGER` in SQL Server?**
    - A: A trigger in SQL Server is a set of instructions that are automatically executed or fired in response to certain events on a particular table or view.

### Azure SQL Server:

1. **Q: What is Azure SQL Server?**
   - A: Azure SQL Server is a cloud-based relational database service provided by Microsoft Azure. It allows users to deploy, manage, and scale SQL Server databases in the Azure cloud.

2. **Q: What are the key differences between Azure SQL Database and traditional SQL Server?**
   - A: Azure SQL Database is a fully managed, scalable, and cloud-based service, while traditional SQL Server is typically self-hosted and managed.

3. **Q: How does scaling work in Azure SQL Database?**
   - A: Scaling in Azure SQL Database can be achieved by adjusting the database's service tier and performance level, allowing for dynamic changes in resource allocation.

4. **Q: What is the purpose of Elastic

 Pools in Azure SQL Database?**
   - A: Elastic Pools in Azure SQL Database allow multiple databases to share and use a common set of resources, providing cost efficiency and easier management.

5. **Q: Explain the concept of Geo-Replication in Azure SQL Database.**
   - A: Geo-Replication in Azure SQL Database allows for creating readable secondary databases in different Azure regions, providing high availability and disaster recovery.

6. **Q: How can you secure data in Azure SQL Database?**
   - A: Security measures for Azure SQL Database include firewall rules, authentication, role-based access control, encryption, and auditing.

7. **Q: What is Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) in Azure SQL Database?**
   - A: TDE in Azure SQL Database encrypts the database at rest, protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access.

8. **Q: Explain the concept of Azure SQL Database Managed Instances.**
   - A: Azure SQL Database Managed Instances provide a fully managed SQL Server instance in the Azure cloud, offering greater compatibility for migrating on-premises databases.

9. **Q: How does Azure SQL Database handle automatic backups and point-in-time restores?**
   - A: Azure SQL Database automatically performs regular backups, and users can perform point-in-time restores to recover the database to a specific point in time.

10. **Q: What is the purpose of Query Performance Insight in Azure SQL Database?**
    - A: Query Performance Insight in Azure SQL Database provides insights into the database's query performance, helping users identify and resolve performance issues.

### Redis:

1. **Q: What is Redis?**
   - A: Redis is an open-source, in-memory data structure store used as a database, cache, and message broker. It supports various data structures like strings, hashes, lists, sets, and more.

2. **Q: How does Redis achieve high performance?**
   - A: Redis achieves high performance by storing data in memory, using a single-threaded event-loop architecture, and optimizing data structures for efficiency.

3. **Q: What are some common use cases for Redis?**
   - A: Redis is commonly used for caching, real-time analytics, session storage, leaderboards, and as a message broker in publish/subscribe scenarios.

4. **Q: Explain the concept of data expiration in Redis.**
   - A: Redis allows setting expiration times for keys, enabling automatic removal of data after a specified period. This is often used in caching scenarios.

5. **Q: What is the difference between SET and MSET commands in Redis?**
   - A: The SET command in Redis sets the value of a single key, while MSET sets the values of multiple keys in a single command.

6. **Q: How does Redis support transactions?**
   - A: Redis supports transactions using the MULTI, EXEC, and DISCARD commands, allowing multiple commands to be executed as a single atomic operation.

7. **Q: What is the role of Redis Pub/Sub (Publish/Subscribe)?**
   - A: Redis Pub/Sub allows message broadcasting to multiple subscribers. Publishers send messages to channels, and subscribers receive messages from subscribed channels.

8. **Q: How does Redis handle data persistence?**
   - A: Redis supports both snapshotting and journaling for data persistence. Snapshots are point-in-time backups, while the journal logs changes to the dataset.

9. **Q: What is the purpose of Lua scripting in Redis?**
   - A: Lua scripting in Redis allows users to execute custom scripts on the server, providing more complex and atomic operations.

10. **Q: How can you monitor and manage Redis?**
    - A: Redis can be monitored using the MONITOR command, and management tasks can be performed using the Redis CLI, GUI tools, or through the Redis commands.

### Azure Service Apps:

1. **Q: What are Azure App Service Apps?**
   - A: Azure App Service is a fully managed platform for building, deploying, and scaling web apps. It supports various languages, frameworks, and continuous integration.

2. **Q: What is the difference between Web Apps and API Apps in Azure App Service?**
   - A: Web Apps are for hosting websites, while API Apps are specifically designed for building and exposing APIs. Both are part of the Azure App Service.

3. **Q: How can you deploy a web app to Azure App Service?**
   - A: Web apps can be deployed to Azure App Service using tools like Azure DevOps, Visual Studio, Git, GitHub Actions, or directly from the Azure Portal.

4. **Q: What is the purpose of deployment slots in Azure App Service?**
   - A: Deployment slots allow for testing and staging of web app changes before deploying them to production. They provide separate instances with their own configurations.

5. **Q: Explain the concept of scaling in Azure App Service.**
   - A: Scaling in Azure App Service can be achieved vertically (scale up/down) by changing the app service plan or horizontally (scale out/in) by adjusting the number of instances.

6. **Q: How does Azure App Service integrate with Azure Active Directory for authentication?**
   - A: Azure App Service can use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) for authentication and authorization using various authentication providers and protocols.

7. **Q: What is the purpose of the Azure App Service Editor?**
   - A: Azure App Service Editor is a web-based code editor integrated into the Azure Portal. It allows direct editing of files in the web app without the need for additional tools.

8. **Q: How can you configure custom domains for Azure App Service?**
   - A: Custom domains can be configured for Azure App Service through the Azure Portal, using domain providers, and configuring DNS settings.

9. **Q: What is Azure WebJobs in the context of Azure App Service?**
   - A: Azure WebJobs is a feature of Azure App Service that allows the execution of background tasks or scripts as part of a web app.

10. **Q: How can you enable diagnostics and monitoring for Azure App Service?**
    - A: Diagnostics and monitoring for Azure App Service can be enabled through Azure Monitor, Application Insights, and built-in logging features.

### Logic Apps:

1. **Q: What are Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Azure Logic Apps are cloud-based services that allow users to create and run workflows for integrating and orchestrating services, applications, and data across cloud and on-premises environments.

2. **Q: What is the difference between Azure Logic Apps and Azure Functions?**
   - A: Azure Logic Apps are designed for building workflows and orchestrations, while Azure Functions are designed for serverless event-driven compute tasks.

3. **Q: How do you create a workflow in Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Workflows in Azure Logic Apps are created by visually designing them using the Logic Apps Designer in the Azure Portal.

4. **Q: Explain the concept of connectors in Azure Logic Apps.**
   - A: Connectors in Azure Logic Apps provide a way to connect to and interact with various services and systems, such as Azure services, SaaS applications, and on-premises systems.

5. **Q: What is the purpose of triggers in Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Triggers in Azure Logic Apps initiate the execution of a workflow. They are event-based and respond to events or changes in connected systems.

6. **Q

: How does error handling work in Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Azure Logic Apps provide built-in error handling through try-catch patterns, scope actions, and the ability to handle and log errors during workflow execution.

7. **Q: What is the role of conditions in Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Conditions in Azure Logic Apps allow users to define branching logic within workflows based on certain criteria or conditions.

8. **Q: Explain the concept of parallel execution in Azure Logic Apps.**
   - A: Parallel execution in Azure Logic Apps allows multiple actions or branches of a workflow to run concurrently, improving performance and efficiency.

9. **Q: How can you monitor and troubleshoot Azure Logic Apps?**
   - A: Monitoring and troubleshooting in Azure Logic Apps can be done through the Azure Portal, where users can view run history, check logs, and set up alerts.

10. **Q: What is the purpose of the Azure Logic Apps Enterprise Integration Pack?**
    - A: The Enterprise Integration Pack for Azure Logic Apps provides additional connectors and features for integrating with enterprise systems, such as SAP and Oracle.

### Functions:

1. **Q: What are Azure Functions?**
   - A: Azure Functions are serverless compute services that allow users to run event-triggered functions without the need to explicitly provision or manage infrastructure.

2. **Q: How does serverless computing differ from traditional server-based computing?**
   - A: Serverless computing eliminates the need for server provisioning and management, allowing developers to focus on writing code that responds to events or triggers.

3. **Q: What are the different types of triggers in Azure Functions?**
   - A: Triggers in Azure Functions include HTTP triggers, Timer triggers, Blob triggers, Queue triggers, and more. They initiate the execution of functions in response to events.

4. **Q: How can you deploy and manage Azure Functions?**
   - A: Azure Functions can be deployed and managed using tools like Azure Portal, Azure CLI, Visual Studio, and Azure DevOps. Continuous deployment and scaling are supported.

5. **Q: What is the purpose of input and output bindings in Azure Functions?**
   - A: Input and output bindings in Azure Functions simplify the integration of functions with external services and data sources by providing a declarative way to connect to them.

6. **Q: How does state management work in Azure Functions?**
   - A: Azure Functions are designed to be stateless by default, but they can use external storage services like Azure Storage or databases for persisting state between function executions.

7. **Q: Explain the concept of Durable Functions in Azure.**
   - A: Durable Functions in Azure provide a way to write stateful functions by allowing the creation of workflows with long-running and stateful operations.

8. **Q: What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous Azure Functions?**
   - A: Synchronous functions respond immediately to the trigger, while asynchronous functions may perform longer-running operations and respond later.

9. **Q: How can you secure Azure Functions?**
   - A: Azure Functions can be secured using authentication and authorization mechanisms, including function keys, managed identities, and integration with Azure AD.

10. **Q: What are the advantages of using Azure Functions for microservices architecture?**
    - A: Azure Functions are well-suited for microservices due to their serverless nature, event-driven model, scalability, and ability to handle individual functions independently.

### API Manager:

1. **Q: What is Azure API Management?**
   - A: Azure API Management is a fully managed API gateway that allows users to create, publish, secure, and analyze APIs.

2. **Q: How does Azure API Management handle API versioning?**
   - A: API versioning in Azure API Management can be achieved through URL versioning, query parameter versioning, or header versioning.

3. **Q: What is the purpose of policies in Azure API Management?**
   - A: Policies in Azure API Management are used to customize the behavior of APIs by applying transformations, security measures, and other runtime features.

4. **Q: How can you secure APIs in Azure API Management?**
   - A: APIs in Azure API Management can be secured using policies for authentication, authorization, and encryption. Additionally, API keys and OAuth 2.0 can be employed.

5. **Q: Explain the concept of API throttling in Azure API Management.**
   - A: API throttling in Azure API Management limits the number of requests a client can make to an API within a specified time period, preventing abuse and ensuring fair usage.

6. **Q: How does caching work in Azure API Management?**
   - A: Caching in Azure API Management allows responses from the backend API to be stored and served directly to clients, improving performance and reducing the load on the backend.

7. **Q: What is the purpose of the Developer Portal in Azure API Management?**
   - A: The Developer Portal in Azure API Management provides a customizable portal for developers to discover, understand, and consume APIs. It includes documentation, testing tools, and more.

8. **Q: How can you monitor and analyze API usage in Azure API Management?**
   - A: Azure API Management provides built-in analytics and monitoring tools, including reports on API usage, performance, errors, and health.

9. **Q: What is the role of API policies in Azure API Management?**
   - A: API policies in Azure API Management allow users to control the behavior of APIs by applying various policies such as authentication, transformation, rate limiting, and more.

10. **Q: How can you version APIs in Azure API Management?**
    - A: APIs in Azure API Management can be versioned through the configuration of version sets, which help manage the lifecycle of APIs with different versions.

### Azure DevOps:

1. **Q: What is Azure DevOps?**
   - A: Azure DevOps is a set of development tools and services that facilitate the entire DevOps lifecycle, including source code management, build automation, release management, and more.

2. **Q: How does Azure DevOps support continuous integration (CI)?**
   - A: Azure DevOps supports continuous integration by automating the build process, allowing developers to integrate code changes into a shared repository frequently.

3. **Q: What is the purpose of the Azure Repos service in Azure DevOps?**
   - A: Azure Repos is a version control service in Azure DevOps that provides Git repositories for source code management and Team Foundation Version Control (TFVC) repositories.

4. **Q: How does Azure DevOps support continuous delivery (CD)?**
   - A: Azure DevOps supports continuous delivery by automating the deployment process, enabling the frequent and reliable release of applications.

5. **Q: What is the role of the Azure Pipelines service in Azure DevOps?**
   - A: Azure Pipelines is a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) service in Azure DevOps that automates building, testing, and deploying code.

6. **Q: How can you manage work items in Azure DevOps?**
   - A: Work items in Azure DevOps are managed through the Azure Boards service, allowing teams to track and prioritize tasks, issues, and user stories.

7. **Q: What is the purpose of the Azure Test Plans service in Azure DevOps?**
   - A: Azure Test Plans is a service in Azure Dev

Ops that provides tools for test planning, execution, and tracking. It supports manual and automated testing.

8. **Q: How does Azure DevOps support release management?**
   - A: Azure DevOps supports release management through the Release Pipelines feature, allowing users to define, manage, and automate the deployment process.

9. **Q: What is the Azure DevOps Marketplace?**
   - A: The Azure DevOps Marketplace is a platform where users can find, try, and buy extensions and integrations to enhance and customize their Azure DevOps experience.

10. **Q: How can you integrate Azure DevOps with other tools and services?**
    - A: Azure DevOps can be integrated with other tools and services through built-in connectors, extensions, webhooks, and REST APIs, enabling seamless collaboration across the development ecosystem.

These questions and answers provide a broad overview of the mentioned skills. Depending on the depth of knowledge required for a specific role or task, you may need to explore more detailed resources and documentation for each skill.

Leave your comment